Roughton Recommends

Welcome to my blog. Anything that I can't find a place for elsewhere will end up here. My goal is to provide specific recommendations of lessons and products that I've found useful in my instruction.

Gamification Year 2 Part 2

posted by Kevin Roughton

As I noted in part 1, I don't think gamifying my classroom to the Next Level has increased engagement in my classes. I've had light game layers for years. Unifying them all into one central theme had made it more coherent but I'm not sure it has made a difference for the kids. I think that my failure to properly implement the reward system is part of the issue.

Turns out rewards are hard. 

My reward system operates on both a class and individual level. Classes earn points for behavior and the like to compete against the other classes. Individuals earn XP to unlock Power Ups.  The class layer works great. The individual layer has been the challenge. I've redone the skill chart at least half a dozen times but here's the one I plan to use in the upcoming year:

As shown in part 1, as students earn XP they get Skill Cards which they can turn in to use the power ups in the chart above. I made sure all students earn level 1 and 2. I called each of them up to my desk, showed them the XP chart and gave them their reward. My idea was that once they'd experienced engaging with the reward system they'd do it more consistently. 

They kind of did. I had more engagement with it than in year one but still, overall, only about 30% of my students used any of their rewards last year beyond the level 1 and 2. 

So, why was that?

1) Many of the rewards were pointless. I made the reward chart just before we completely redid our assessments. There was a Power Up that let students redo a test - but they we made all tests infinitely redoable anyway. There was one that let them use their cell phones for 10 minutes during a quiz - but then we went 1 to 1 and Chromebooks were used all the time in every quiz. I've redone the rewards to make them all much more desirable this time around. I'm also considering changing it from 2 rewards per level to 5-6 rewards per level chunk. This would give kids more options and allow them to reuse a Power Up they really enjoyed. That would likely increase their engagement with this layer. 

2) The fear of limitations. Some students horded their tokens, waiting for the perfect moment to spend them. Then the year ended and they were stuck with nothing but laminated strips of paper. I totally sympathize with the kids on this one as it is how I play video games as well. When I unlock that awesome limited use power up I NEVER use it.  I don't know what the solution to this is other than maybe putting a time limit on each Power Up. That would require more tracking on my part and I'm not sure it would do enough to push them to use them anyway.

3) I didn't re-explain it often enough. All year long I'd have random kids asking me "How do I get my Power Up cards?" "How do I level up?"  Of course, I'd gone over all this in depth on Launch Day in August and posted the rules online and on the classroom wall but these are 12 year olds we're talking about. I need to do full class reminders much more often. I'll try to do it every time I post a new leaderboard as that puts the game front and center.

I think these are all problems that I can lesson if not completely solve.

The classroom layer is much more effective. Classes earn (or lose) points all week and then use those points to play The Bonus Round at the end of the week. 

The game is pretty dumb. It's 6 doors that the class can spend points to open and get random rewards or punishments. It takes max 5 minutes but they absolutely LOVE IT.  My entire classroom management system boils down to me picking up a marker and walking toward toward the scoreboard. That's all it takes. Those class points are gold to them. 

Whenever a class hits 1000 points (which takes about 2 months on average) they earn a class reward like donuts or cookies and the points reset. 

I think the game works so well, despite it's simplicity, for two major reasons:
1) It's a shared experience
2) It's always in sight

One student leads each week. They are the only person I listen to in terms of which doors to open. The rest of the class always helps the person decide and they cheer and jeer as a unit. Plus, using their own individual rewards students can influence the game even if they are not the leader by blocking bad moves or doubling up good ones. 

The scoreboard is right on my front whiteboard. Everyone sees it all the time. It's not like an XP sheet online. It's always there. The class layer is always in sight and therefore always in mind. I've tried to do that with the individual layer by adding the Wall of Champions but I'm not sure it has done much. We'll see as it grows.

All that said, I learned something very important at the end of my game this year - they aren't that important. My students loved my game - both on the class and individual layer. When they reached the end and saw the closing video and credits 2 of my 3 classes burst into cheers unprompted (not sure what was wrong with the last one...)  In their year end reflections many commented on how they liked playing as an Agent, including many who never cashed in their rewards.

It makes sense of course. I haven't played hundreds of hours of Tetris in my life hoping for an extrinsic reward. I just really enjoy getting better and the game. I don't spend weeks playing through an RPG to make a powerful character, I do it to see the narrative of the game. Those are the rewards.

So, yes, rewards are hard, but so what? If only half of my kids engage on that level that's half as many rewards I have to dole out. If they are all engaged in the game (and more importantly the class) anyway, so what?  I'll leave the rewards out there for my eager achievers and completionists but I won't stress too much if not ever player cares!

Gamification Year 2 Part 1

posted May 28, 2017, 11:56 AM by Kevin Roughton   [ updated May 28, 2017, 12:22 PM ]

After two years of running my gamified classroom The Fracture Crisis, I feel really ready to talk about the process of gamifying your classroom. I plan to do so over a series of entries here alongside posting all my materials on the Fracture Crisis site.

First, two notes.

1) You do not need to buy anything to run a gamified classroom. I've spent a bit of money paying artists to do voice work for my game videos but that's it. I'm tired of seeing teachers selling pieces of their games like power-up cards and tracking sheets. If you want to sell a book, whatever, go ahead, but then you had better include the pieces needed with it. Most don't. Everything is my game is free and there's tons more out there free as well. Don't spend - share.

2) I don't think gamifying my classroom has made any measurable difference in student engagement. That's a hard thing to admit given the work I've put into it, but it's the truth. I never had an issue with engagement though. Some kids have really enjoyed the game layer and I'll happily continue it but it hasn't led to any noticeable shifts in my classroom feel. "Playful learning" has always been a part of my room, even if it wasn't fully a game.

So that said, let's dive in part 1!

Part 1: Tracking

The absolute toughest nut to crack with gamification is tracking player progress in the game. There are website options such as ClassDojo and Classcraft but if you're like me you're required to use a certain grade program already. I was not interested in recording all my information twice so using a 3rd party site was a no go for me. 

Year 1 to keep things easy I just had a 1:1 connection between points earned in the gradebook and XP levels in the class game. That worked fine but really didn't contribute to the game feel. No matter how hard I tried I just could not break the hold of "points" and "grades" in the minds of my students. That is a functional method but not an elegant one.

Year I wanted to do more so I created a spreadsheet to track XP that could be gained from a variety of sources. 

The sheet went through multiple revisions and it still isn't quite where I want it. Despite my deep knowledge of PowerPoint I know very little about Spreadsheets so I'm learning as I go. The last thing I really want to do is make it easy to change the XP required per level without updating the entire sheet - but that's what Summers are for.

As it stands it is pretty simple. Column R (Mission XP) is the amount of points currently in the gradebook for each student. My gradebook program has an export to spreadsheet option which gives me a nice column in an Excel sheet that I can simply copy and paste into this one. I don't have to manually input each score (which is what I did in Year 1.)  Column S (Bonus XP) is done by hand when students complete optional sidequests or just do something awesome.  Those two columns are automatically summed up in Column B giving their total current XP. Then, the boxes change colors when each XP threshold in Row 3 is met. This allows students to very quickly see their growth and progress over the course of the game and see where they stand in relation to the other players. 

This visual format was still not clear enough for some of my students. Next year I will explain how the chart works to them in detail. I think part of the reason why many players did not engage with the level up system is that the never quite understood how it worked. I assumed given their experience with games on their phones at the very least they'd get it. My fault for assuming anything with 7th graders I suppose.

Still, after all my fiddling this is, by far, the fastest and clearest way I've devised to track the XP in the class.

Here's what it looks like in use:

This version I have all the columns visible for reference but when I post it to our student page I turn columns R and S white so they disappear. No student knows where the other students' XP has come from. This helps maintain privacy if anyone is concerned about such things (and optional code names helps too.)

Once students have leveled up I had to find a way to track their use of power ups. Some teachers give each student a baseball card holder sheet and print out card-sized power-ups. I think this is a fine idea it just seemed like a lot of work for me when I was really just trying to get my game actually going. I may work on this over the Summer but what I went for instead was something small that students could keep in their ID holders on their lanyards.  I started with Subway-style punch cards. That was a mistake. They were way too easily lost and didn't have enough pop.  So, I ended up making little skill cards that would fit in the holders (half way to the card sized ones!)

Here's a sample:

I laminated each sheet and had then in a container on my desk. When a student leveled up it was his or her responsibility to come to me and pick up their skill cards. I then marked "completed" on the tracking sheet and they could use it whenever they chose. While the system worked great for me and for the players who actually engaged with it  I still want a better way. It just wasn't in their face enough to interest the fence-sitters. 

Next time I'll discuss the rewards I used and how I think I can adjust that part of the game to interest more players. Until then, I highly recommend playing around with the score sheet above. Even if it doesn't meet your needs it should give you an idea how to build one of your own without spending unnecessary money to do so (save that for the rewards!)

I hate, yes hate,

posted Mar 22, 2017, 12:50 PM by Kevin Roughton   [ updated May 5, 2017, 12:27 PM ]

Those of you who know me know I'm actively, vocally against the who idea behind TeachersPayTeachers. My previous dislike (now hatred) goes way back. Very early on the site owner tried to sell pictures she had taken of a movie set to the teachers who produced materials on the website. She presented this in an email to all her producers as a gift to them to help work within copyright. Then she SOLD THE PICTURES. These are the producers who make the site work. She could have just provided the pictures and made the money on the back end from their ridiculous percentage cuts. Nope, she tried to sell them. That was my first clue that the site exists not to help educators but to make money for a select few.

Please understand, I'm as capitalist as they come. I mean, I have an infatuation with Ayn Rand for goodness' sake. I, however, am not for capitalism veiled in lies that takes advantage of our kids. In the spirit of providing perfect information here are more reasons why I now hate, yes hate,

1. This guy

Apparently there's a seller on TpT who realized how great of a teacher I am and decided to steal my lessons and sell them himself. 

This guy has a perfect 4.0 rating (I'm flattered) and calls himself "A Social Studies Professional." He has over 23000 ratings and 4000+ followers on the site. That's a lot of teachers, and an exponentially larger amount of students, who have been ripped off by the site and this guy.  

He claims it was all accidental but that just makes my point all the more. I've seen very few actual "new" ideas on TPT. Everything is a remix of someone else's idea. Ideas that are shared freely and then stamped with some clipart and given a price tag. It's disgusting.

2. "Free" Stuff

TpT defenders tell me frequently that there is plenty of good, free material on it if you really search. I'm sure they are right. My problem is that the TpT owners make it as hard as possible to both list and find free materials. As a producer I am constantly reminded when I post a free item that I should probably not list it free if it is over a certain size (more than a page).

As a consumer I have to go through multiple clicks to change the search parameters to show free items.

Compare this to any legitimate app store like Apple's who literally have an entire section dedicated to their most popular free offerings. Good luck finding such a thing on TpT.

3. Normalization of Bad Behavior

"Kids who don't share on the playground get a lecture. Teachers who don't share get paid!"  That would be an appropriate tag line for TpT. TpT makes it okay for teachers to not share, in fact it is a lauded act now. "I paid for a cruise!" one marketing email from TpT blasted to it's producers. Congratulations, you profited off your colleagues and their students. You also likely deprived many other students of access to your great lesson.

Are we in education in this together or not? Do we really care about kids or not? We manage to all wear black to protest a Secretary of Ed we fear is trying to profit off kids and then we turn around and do it ourselves? We wear red to protest budget cuts then force our colleagues to pay for ideas that could help their students? Something just isn't adding up.

It's sad that Twitter, which used to be my main form of PD and connection is now basically unusable for those things. The tags I'd previously relied on, particularly #sschat, have become nothing but marketing vessels for various TpT Sellers. Where I used to be able to ask for ideas and get great discussions going I'm now offered $4 lessons that I could have made myself.

Not cool.

I don't know what I hope to gain by finally posting this - just venting at least I guess - but I'm ready for a movement. There are TONS of great, free resources out there that I hope people will start to use.  Please stop using TpT and support them instead. Even better, go produce for them and share your awesome ideas. We need them!

And keep an eye on the Daughters of the American Revolution at as they will soon be seeking help on creating their own open, free database on American History lessons. I'll be taking part for sure and I hope many others will too.

Fake News? More like Old News!

posted Feb 27, 2017, 3:25 PM by Kevin Roughton

I’m sick of hearing about fake news. I get it. I’m a history teacher and for some reason this is supposed to greatly bother me. It just doesn’t though. I just do not care about fake news. More accurately, I don’t care about it any more today than I did 5 years ago. We’ve been looking for “fake news” in history for at least the last few decades. It is kind of what we do. If we didn’t look for flaws in the accepted historical record then no new history books would ever need to be written.

Fake news? More like old news!

Today’s lesson reminded me that at least since I discovered SHEG five or so years ago I’ve been teaching my kids to both spot and evaluate fake news (or at least fake history.)  One of the first SHEG lessons I found was one about Atahualpa and the Bible. The historical record (at least the textbook in my classroom) states that Atahualpa was given a religious book but, not being familiar with books tried to listen to it (it was the “word of God” after all), held it up to his ear to hear it. This is the same story I’d heard before and had seen in the movie Royal Hunt of the Sun. The lesson includes two accounts written near the time period addressing the event.

I modified the readings to make them much more readable for my 7th graders and found a 3rd document – this one from the perspective of the Inca. All three sources directly addressed this situation and none of them quite agree on what happened. Interestingly, the Inca source paints the Spaniards as the agitators in the situations. It claims that the Spanish were offered a traditional drink by Atahualpa which they rejected by pouring it out right in front of him. This led to his anger and his rejection of the Bible. My kids all day long have been able to make the connection that the Spanish accounts make the Inca look bad and vice versa. They’ve posited that the Spanish would want to justify their attacks by making the Inca look ignorant and anti-God.

These labs always work fantastically. My students work well together on them and really dig into the source. I had one today who kept saying she wanted to argue that he did listen to it but couldn’t find the evidence no matter how hard she tried. When I explained that maybe her opinion wasn’t correct then a lightbulb seemed to light up. My kids didn’t just take the information being fed to them. They’ve went well beyond the stated information and questioned why. This is all that is really needed to combat fake news – a critical eye toward the source.

I’ve since gone on to design a few more lessons in the Legit or Legend series. I’ve got one on whether Columbus really died believing he had reached Asia and another on whether or not Davy Crockett died while fighting to the death at the Alamo. Any historical claim that has taken on legendary tones is a great topic for exploration. Asking students to challenge commonly accepted historical narratives is a great step in teaching them to question all information sources. The problem with fake news isn’t the fake news. Fake news in my view is no worse than wrong news – and wrong news happens all the time. If our students are taught to evaluate sources for bias and to corroborate the claims of any source then fake news is a lot less of a problem.

The Legit or Legend model does a great job in combating this problem. I’d love to see other teachers try it and design their own. If you’d like a topic I’d love one on whether or not Martin Luther actually nailed the 95 Theses to the church door!


Cars Land, The Little Mermaid and Always 1.0

posted Feb 14, 2017, 1:19 PM by Kevin Roughton   [ updated Feb 15, 2017, 1:32 PM ]

Yesterday I went to Disneyland for the first time in years. I’ve written quite a few blogs about how Disney ideals and practices can positively influence our classrooms. I’ve read a few incredible books about applying Disney principles to life and molded them to fit education. I love Disney and yesterday did not disappoint.

My major takeaway for the day (aside from fun of course) was the way that Disney is always pushing and improving their parks even when they clearly don’t need to. Disneyland has increased tickets prices consistently over the last FOREVER but especially lately with the intent of keeping the crowds manageable. They could just as easily let the rides age and lower demand for the parks but they do not. Three experiences stood out and really helped hammer home my new focus on “always 1.0.”

First, I finally got to go on the updated Star Tours ride. Star Tours was the first ride at any park that blew me away. When it first opened there was nothing like it. The mix of motion with visuals in a simulation was unbelievable. The ride remained popular for years but Disney redid it anyway a few years ago (before their purchase of Lucasfilm I believe.)  The new version was just as amazing as the original. The ride is still essentially the same but the resolution of the screen is now unbelievably high. It looked stunningly real – even through 3D glasses. The motion felt similar but just by updating the visuals it felt like an entirely modern ride. We don’t have to completely reinvent the wheel when we update our lessons. We just need to add in the newest tools we’ve picked up in our kits.

The second thing that stuck out was Cars Land. I knew nothing about it other than the concept art I’d seen for it years ago. It is incredible. The attention to detail astounds. From the way the pathways are paved and painted like roads to the freeway railings using to line the paths everything just oozes Route 66. One can easily see that the Disney Imagineers put every single one of their tricks of the trade into this design. It is the culmination of 60+ years of park design (and has me doubly excited for 2019s Star Wars Land!) I’ve never even seen Cars but I was there, in that world.

Especially in social studies we should be seeking to create that same experience. Our students often have little to no context of the topics we teach until we teach them. The more we can immerse them the more quickly we can draw them in. What little things can we do to add to the story? What about the color-scheme we use for a given unit? What about changing up the font to match the culture? What about the sounds? Can you hang posters or little decorations in your classroom?  We probably can’t create Cars Land but we can use our tools to set the scene.

The greatest effect on me came from the Little Mermaid ride in California Adventure. I really can’t stand The Little Mermaid movie. I think it teaches girls perhaps the worst lesson of any movie I’ve ever seen. (If you are physically attracted to a guy you should disobey your father and sacrifice your very self to pursue him… ugh.) Still, I wanted to see how Disney Imagineers updated their traditional Fantasyland “dark rides” like Snow White and Peter Pan’s Flight. I’ve been on their other recent ones (Monsters Inc and Winnie the Pooh) but they really didn’t have much in the way of advancement. I wondered if Little Mermaid would just be a simple, paint-by-numbers attraction as well.

It isn’t.

It’s quite amazing in fact. It opens with a simple light effect (it’s literally a projector shining on a mirror, I looked.) to simulate going underwater. Then you see Scuttle, the seagull, who looks like any of the other, much older, animatronic figures. It’s a solid opening to the story but is nothing special.

Then it just gets turned up to 11. You see Ariel who has a shocking number of points of articulation. Her hair, for example, despite being one big piece of plastic moves independently of her head giving it a sort of flowing motion (you are underwater after all.) Shortly after, you hit the main scene of the ride – a huge room of sea creatures performing Under the Sea. There is motion everywhere (it reminds me of a scene from It’s a Small World) and perfectly turned location-specific audio. You can hear specific animals playing specific instruments. When they do the sound originates from their spot in the scene. It isn’t just one audio track blasting – it truly feels like you are in the midst of the performance. It really needs to be experienced to be appreciated.

The ride closes with an extremely life-like Sebastian (his eyes are small LCD screens I think, they are far more expressive than plastic could be) and one last shot of Ariel and Erik and their incredibly articulated models. It really is impressive. Disney could have phoned this one in. I doubt the extra work they put into this ride sold a single extra ticket. Little girls who love Ariel would go and love the ride no matter how advanced it was. They could have cut costs and surely saved time but they went all in on making it the best ride they could.

Always 1.0 indeed. If Disneyland, who has little impetus to keep improving, continues to push the envelope further and further shouldn’t we do the same in our classrooms? Are you still delivering that awesome lesson from 10 years ago the same way you did when you first built it? Have you not learned any new tricks to spice it up? As I noted before, I’ve been very guilty of this. I’ve been shocked to see how much every single lesson I’ve done the last few weeks needed updating. I’ve learned a ton since I first designed many of my lessons and I haven’t gone back to apply those skills to them. I think we should.

I really want to get back to playing with location specific audio. I put together a lesson on Vicksburg a couple years ago that utilized Bluetooth speakers in various parts of the room to simulate cannons bursting all around. It worked well, especially for a first try, but I just haven’t tried it again. I feel like something as simple as having a hidden speaker playing random jungle sounds when I start the Mayans could really go a long way. Ultimately I want a multi speaker set up that I can manage from my phone. I want to be able to play a given sound from a given speaker on command. I’m a long way from that but that doesn’t mean I can’t do something with the concept (especially since I already have!)

Not everything has to be huge. It just has to keep getting better. Always 1.0!

Well Begun is Half Done

posted Feb 6, 2017, 4:55 PM by Kevin Roughton

Mary Poppins: Our first game is called Well Begun is Half-Done.
Michael: I don't like the sound of that.
Mary Poppins: Otherwise titled Let's Tidy up the Nursery.
Michael: [to Jane] I told you she was tricky.

In the last day I've had two new teachers ask me about how start to designing a new lab. I didn't really have an easy answer in either case so I'm going to do my best to explain it here.

First, go read Teach like a Pirate. It is focused on social studies but it is a fantastic tool for creating any new activity. The author, Dave Burgess, offers a series of questions to ask yourself to help come up with your hook for the lesson. That really is the hardest part so that would be a great place to start.

If, like me, you've read the and still find yourself stuck I'd say the next step is to think of your central question. Every good lab, in any subject, is centered around the question. That is what turns a lesson from an info dump into an investigation. 

Did Julius Caesar want to die?
Should Andrew Jackson be removed from the $20 bill?
Were the Mayans really advanced?
How is marine biology different from whateverwordmeansnonmarine biology?
What happens if we use a number system based on 20 instead of 10?
What did Edgar Allen Poe's stories have in common?

Often these questions come from our standards or framework but they can just as easily come from outside influences. Many times I've been watching something on TV and heard a question or saw a topic that I felt my students would enjoy investigating. Other times my questions have come from looking at other lessons on the topic.

Once you have the question you can start to ask yourself the best way to help students discover the answer. Is it through a guided Internet search? Is it through analysis of graphics? A simulation? A game? An act it out? A modification of another lesson I've done?  Sometimes it is as simple for me as looking at my calendar and seeing what lab types we haven't used in awhile. (It's been three weeks since we did a Digging for the Truth? Let's do that!) You surely have a huge tool box of lesson types and ideas that you've picked up in "teacher school" or through your time teaching. 

With your question and general lesson idea in hand (or at least in head) you can start looking for additional media to bring into the lesson. You can check out Youtube for connected videos or fire up a Google image search. You can start to think of songs - old or now - that can connect to your lab. This is just window dressing though. Don't hold off on a lab simply because you couldn't spice it up with media. The core is the question and the delivery method.

When in doubt - crowdsource it. I'm a huge advocate of Twitter (less so since October but that's another story...) as professional development. For any subject the teachers at the #TLAP are wonderful. That is the community tied to Teach like a Pirate. It is a community of teachers who want to engage their students and their ideas are fantastic. It is one of the few communities that isn't overrun with political commentary. It is just teachers looking to drive themselves (and each other) to do the very best for their students. When I hit a wall and just can't think of something to do with a topic I'll take it to them. Sometimes they have exactly what I need. Other times I'll just get an idea that sends me in the right direction.  And, yes, sometimes I get no response. Even that, though, drives me forward. That just means someone needs to make it happen and well, it might as well be me.

The key to it really is to just began. Mary Poppins was pretty spot on with her analysis. I'd change only one thing. I don't think the job even has to be well begun. I just think it has to be begun period. Burgess writes about the power of our creative brains functioning in the background once we've given it a question to grapple with. Start a Word Doc and put some ideas down. In a few years you may end up with dozens of file names like "Compromise Lab [unfinished]" like I have but you'll also find you end up with many completed labs ready to use, engage and hopefully share. 

I highly recommend trying to design your own labs (which are really just inquiry based lessons) and see where it takes you.

Always 1.0

posted Jan 24, 2017, 11:44 AM by Kevin Roughton   [ updated Jan 31, 2017, 12:24 PM ]

I had a conversation with another teacher this weekend that left me thinking. He created a new lab based on one I had built previously and he made sure to tell me it was "very 1.0" implying that it still had work to be done on it. 1.0 in technical terms means a software version that is functional and ready for market. Naming it 1.0, however, indicates that revisions (1.1, 1.7, 2.0, etc.) are expected to come.

I responded that my labs are "always 1.0." I constantly change, tweak and rebuild labs in order to make them more effective and more engaging. I've written before about how some teachers are intimidated by what I do saying they could never do it themselves. I hope to again point out that what is do is A) never perfect and B) a result of lots of work. It isn't magic!

When I started teaching I can vividly remember thinking that in three years of teaching my curriculum I'd have it down. I'd drive myself crazy designing and lesson planning for those three years and then it would be smooth sailing until retirement. After year three I adjusted my expectations to year 5. By year 7 I realized that I never would hit that point of being "done" and if I did - I wasn't giving my students my best. I grow, I learn new techniques and my students are different every year. Always 1.0!

So, with that mindset I did my Digging for the Truth: Maya lab yesterday. I got this lab from a colleague many years ago. It's a great lab and has been from the start. The students get way into it and learn a ton, not only about the Mayans, but about how to get information from artifacts and make reasonable inferences from them. A few years ago I tweaked it a little to add a scripted narrative that led students through the exhibits. Then, last year, I added a guide sheet with sentence starters to help focus their thinking. However, the lab was essentially unchanged. It still looked the same and performed the same. If it ain't broke, why fix it? Right?


Here are all the marks I made on just page 1 of the script. With the mindset of "always 1.0" I found many things that could be updated and improved in the presentation and script. I simply kept track as I ran the lab of the things that looked like they could be better. Every time my mind wandered into "man it would be cool if..." I wrote it down. When I reviewed my notes at the end of the day I found that some of them were thing I've planned to fix for years (adding visual numbers to the slides so I could keep track of my place in the script.) Others were things that I've learned how to do since last hosting the lab (adding an animation of walking through the jungle.) 

And, perhaps most importantly, some were things I couldn't do. I wanted to make the painting of the calendar look more like was actually an object hanging on the wall and not just an illustration. I played around with some of the 3D tools in Powerpoint but the image just isn't built for it. Even adding simple shadows didn't help. So, right now, it still looks like a painting on the wall. When I do this again next year I'm sure I'll be reminded that it is, after all, only version 1.0 and maybe by then I'll have learned how to do what I'm envisioning.

Now, the big question. Will any of the changes I made improve the learning that takes place in this lab? Honestly, I don't think they will. They will, perhaps, increase attention and engagement very slightly. Again, this lab was already very engaging. Students have loved it from the beginning. Still, the time spent is well worth it. I'll feel more excited hosting the lab next year. I'm always more interested when trying something with new elements than when hosting a lab in the same way as I have for years. 

I encourage you to try out an "always 1.0" mindset the next time you do an activity you've done in the past. Step back and ask yourself what it would look like if you had no limits on your technical abilities. Then, go build to that point. Get it a little closer to that vision. Very good can still be better. 

**Update - One Week Later***

Okay, so this 1.0 idea has proven to be a huge game-changer for me. Over the last week I've been more focused on not just making little improvements whenever possible but on analyzing my audience. Going in to each period with the idea of "this is 1.0, how do I improve it?" has really shifted my perspective on my lessons. I'm actively looking for those spots where attention starts to lull or the response isn't quite what I expected. I've been posting sticky notes and little scribbled notes all over the place.

Most of these changes have been very small and have taken only a few minutes to make. In some cases I've been able to pick up on the areas of improvement early in the day and fix them for the remaining classes. This is, of course, always something I've done but this focus has made it much more front and center. 

I recommend for your next lesson have a Post-it stuck to your desk with "1.0" written at the top. As you host the lesson make notes about anything you think could be improved - no matter how big or small. At the end of the lesson make a quick note on what didn't meet your expectations. 

This mentality is incredibly freeing. I don't feel the pressure to be perfect. I feel the excitement of knowing next time will be better. Always 1.0!

Culture Shock: The Early Republic

posted Dec 22, 2016, 8:52 AM by Kevin Roughton   [ updated Jan 10, 2017, 11:41 AM ]

My students really enjoy the Culture Shock labs I do for World History. It is an opportunity to discuss daily life and some of the more unique aspects of a given society. I have them play charades to simulate the language barriers of the Columbian Exchange, build houses of cards to simulate to loss of knowledge after the Fall of Rome, perform Sumo wrestling rituals, speak to them in French to simulate Latin in the Catholic Church and analyze multiple paintings of daily life among many other things. They are always engaging and memorable.

I've sadly found it harder to do that with U.S. history. Spending a full year on one society doesn't leave a ton of room for uniqueness. I noticed though that I had a bunch of little mini-activities for the Early Republic period that I couldn't make into a full lab. So, why not see if I could make a Culture Shock with those? I did and I'm excited to try it when we get back.

Culture Shock: The Early Republic (Download the file and run it through PowerPoint to see it all properly)

Here's the break down of how each Shock works if you want to try it.

Shock 1: Use it or Lose It

Last time I used this activity with a short reading on the Sedition Acts. I like it here better. The set up is that students need to use their rights for them to really matter. We've just learned about the Constitution, Bill of Rights and the Sedition Acts. They will write a formal protest letter to the principal. As they are doing so I will walk around the room and censor their papers with a black marker (without warning of course) and explain that their words are just too harsh to be taken seriously. 

Let the indignation flow.

Shock 2: Time to Party

Students read a paraphrase of some incendiary editorials against John Adams in the 1800 election. They then write their own against a new candidate for president: SpongeBob SquarePants. This worked out extremely well. The students had a great time turning his flaws into absolutely tyranny. It also helped to get them to see how tense things had become between the early political parties and why the Sedition Acts, crazy as they were, made some sense to the Federalists.

Shock 3: More Cartoons

Students analyze a political cartoon blasting a Democratic-Republican as a tool of the devil. Avoid saying too much about the cartoon. Most of it can speak for itself. I over-explained and weakened some of the analysis.

Shock 4: Dating Advice (From a Real Man)

Students take a Cosmo-style dating quiz hosted by George Washington. This is built on a letters he wrote to his grand-daughters from There are great video clips there from Martha Washington giving her own dating advice. My students had a ton of fun doing this. It was a good way to a sense of some of the more "normal" day to day life at the time.

Shock 5: Leaf me Alone!

Students will go outside and find leaf, rock, stick or other object from nature. They will then draw and describe it in a Lewis & Clark Journal-like way.

Shock 6: Name that Animal

Students will try to figure out what animals were being described in various entries of the Lewis and Clark Journals.

I'm not at all convinced that I'll get through all these in a period. In fact, I'm quite sure I won't. I'm not sure which I'll cut yet. I'm wishing I had done the Sedition Act simulation already as that would make it an easy fit but it also flows well into the other two.  In the sure-to-come-eventually version 2.0 I'd like to add one more activity dealing with the political parties (maybe a "Which side are you?" kind of quiz?) and move the two Lewis and Clark activities to their own day and build them out further.  For now though, this is it and I think it will be a great back-from-vacation lab to kick the new year off.

Merry Christmas! Here's a bonus lesson I'll also be doing when I return. I stole the idea from my colleague Anthony Gomez who is doing some amazing design work as a relatively new teacher. It is modeled after the DFTT: Caravan lab I built last year. His lesson was so in-depth I actually am breaking into two different ones so my simple brain can manage it! Here's the first part.

Teaching with Games

posted Oct 24, 2016, 12:41 PM by Kevin Roughton

Last year for me was all about presentation and design. I redid nearly all of my PowerPoints to be more animation heavy and text light. While that process has continued this year I've focused much more heavily on creating games to use in my classroom - particularly with my 8th grade US History course.  Let's face it, teaching the Constitution for 6 weeks can end up being a little bit (maybe a lot) boring. I wanted some games to spice it up.

So, last week my kids played through a bunch of games on iCivics. While I realized I allotted more class time for them than necessary I'm still very pleased with the results. The students came away with a strong understanding of how each branch of the government operates and how difficult each really is to run. They had a great time playing the games and it has led to some excellent discussions in class. I highly recommend Executive Decision if nothing else. That game is tense and really helped kids realize how much it takes to be president.

Then today was the culminating game - one that I designed myself based on an iCivics lesson: Political Agenda.

My goal was to create a game that mirrored the many levels of agendas a typical government representative would have. There were individual agendas, group (or branch) agendas, and also a full class agenda. 

The class goal for the game was to create a new lunch menu for a school.

The District Representatives (Legislative Branch) were trying to create a menu with a certain enjoyability rating simulating the role representatives play in directly representing the desires of the people.

The Executive Chef Staff (Executive Branch) was trying to create a menu with a certain cost and difficulty rating simulating the responsibility of the Executive in making sure laws are actually executed. (NOTE: I almost immediately eliminated the difficulty ratings. Just having cost was plenty for the Executives.)

The Nutritional Judges (Judiciary Branch) was trying to create a menu with a certain level of nutrition simulating the role the court plays in ensuring the health of the government by ensuring the Constitution is followed. (A stretch, I know, but it worked.)

Then, each individual player had their own hidden agenda. Some earned bonus points for having specific items on the menu, some earned a bonus for getting things done quickly and others, the saboteurs!, actually won the game if no menu was created. I based (stole?) the idea from an expansion set to the game Resistance entitled Hidden Agenda. The idea of trying to complete a goal that is unique to you and is hidden from other players is a great game mechanic that I knew my students would enjoy. It also served to simulate how different government officials have different agendas.

The game started with the Representatives having 5 minutes to create a proposed menu (a Bill.) My big fear was that it would be too confusing and they'd just stare at each other. Well, that didn't happen - at all. Instead, it turned into chaos almost immediately (a perfect simulation of Congress!). The Speaker of the Representatives, who was chosen by random hidden agenda, was a quiet girl who had no control over her group. Next time I might choose that position myself or have him/her be elected. It wasn't a problem though. They got right to work on trying to create their menu. They ran a bit over their 5 minutes but as soon as I gave points to the other teams (simulating political pressure to get things done) they had a menu ready to present.

That menu went on to the Executive Staff. Once they realized that the president did not have to have a majority vote and could just decide on her own whether to veto or not the menu was signed and sent on to the judges.The judges did have to vote and quickly voted the menu down (apparently Jamba Juice, French fries, pizza, milk and salad is not the healthiest menu) sending it back to the Representatives to start over. 

This time the menu was vetoed by the Executive.

A third menu made it to the judges but was once again voted down. Time ran out and our game was over. We failed! We had no menu to present and the only people to successfully complete their agendas were the two saboteurs (Conservative republicans who were happy to see that the government would not get involved in menus.)

It turned out that one of the saboteurs was the most vocal in his group and kept purposefully suggesting terrible menus just to waste time. I didn't build it into the game but apparently it was such a spot on simulation that even filibusters made it in!

We closed with three debrief questions. When I collect and tabulate them I'll add student responses. This was absolutely a beta test so I'm eager to see what they had to say.

1. Summarize your experience with the game. Did you meet your goal? Why or why not?

2. As you were playing the game which agenda were you most focused on completing - the class agenda, your team agenda or your personal agenda? Why do you think you focused on that agenda most?

3. The Constitution was designed to limit the power of the government. Explain how our game shows that separation of powers makes it hard for the government to create new laws.

For me, everything seemed to go pretty well. I need a much clearer and simpler "HOW TO PLAY" instruction sheet for all players going forward and I might tweak some of the values and win requirements to make it more possible to create the menu - though my group came close and might make it on a second play through. I think I might remove the "look these words up" when it isn't your turn component of the game. I was very concerned that teams just wouldn't do anything during other team's turns. That didn't happen. They were actively listening to the groups debate and then frantically calculating whether they would support the proposed menu or not. I did have a few kids "opt out" of their discussions but I think giving them the terms to look up actually exacerbated their lack of participation as it gave them a reason to opt out. 

Still, even the opt out were paying attention - they just weren't vocal about it. It was also one of those activities where some of my students who normally aren't super involved absolutely were. They relished using terms like veto (and even asked about impeachment!) even though the game doesn't really require it. They were just way into their roles, even those who normally aren't so involved in class. That's exactly the reason for using games in the classroom.

After my 5 days of games I feel very confident that my students understand the 3 Branches of Government. They appreciate the difficulties faced by each branch and how hard it is to make laws. Our essential question for this unit is "How does the Constitution limit the power of government?" and I'm confident that when they face their test next week they'll be very ready to answer it.

Games are cool. Use them!

If you're interested in trying this one here's a link to everything you'll need: Political Agenda. As always, it is free. Just print and play!

Breakout EDU

posted Sep 29, 2016, 2:31 PM by Kevin Roughton   [ updated Sep 30, 2016, 7:18 AM ]

A couple weeks ago I did my first BreakoutEDU with my students. Essentially it is an "Escape the Room" game with an educational twist. I loved the idea of what is essentially a mini-Alternate Reality Game (ARG.) Breakouts combine game-based learning along with story-based learning in a very unique and exciting way. Solving puzzles, especially those with a good mystery behind them, is fun. Still, I was hesitant.

There are a good amount of pre-made games on their site and I've been watching it off an on for about year. I just couldn't pull the trigger because I just didn't see enough of an educational component to them.  This summer I started designing one for my AVID class (where doing things just for the sake of community, fun and inquiry is encouraged.) I bought all the locks and boxes basically to force myself to make it happen.

At the same time I was watching through Turn: Washington's Spies about George Washington's Revolutionary War spy ring. 

Cue the lightbulb moment. What better topic could there be for a series of cryptic puzzles than a spy ring?

Two months later I had my BreakoutEDU ready and chock full of educational value. Here's the folder with everything you'll need to use:  BreakoutEDU: Washington's Spies.  

Here's the guide to the various locks and puzzles (kids no peeking): Washington's Spies Guide

My biggest change from the Summer plans to the final version was the switch from physical locks to digital ones. I ended up using just a few of the physical locks and instead used Google Forms to create digital locks. This way I could have different groups working on the same puzzles without having to fight over the locks. All the fighting would be saved for the last few links in the puzzle chain when I knew they'd be so amped up that they'd be ready to battle to win.

I started the whole thing with this:

I had this set up on Wednesday - 5 days prior to the planned activity. It originally said "Monday" instead of "TODAY" but was otherwise the same. Almost immediately students started trying to crack the code. They asked me what year I was born, what my favorite year was and all sorts of weird questions. Some even tried important historical years like 1776. Just by putting the box out early I was building excitement and interest.

On Monday I split the class into 6 groups. Each received a manila envelope with the printed clues and a link to the digital locks (which linked them to the remaining digital clues.) The clues all came from readings about the workings of the spy ring. I've never seen kids read with such purpose! We've all heard of close reading but this was really CLOSE reading.

The excitement and interest was truly unbelievable. My classroom is often full of energy but this was another level. When one girl yelled out "Oooh, I got it!" her partner quite literally jumped out of her seat to go see her computer screen. Even she noted 'Wow, I actually just jumped out of my seat!"  At another point one of my kids called out excitedly, and rapidly, in Spanish. He never does that. He started laughing immediately. His guard was so stripped away by the activity that he dropped into "home mode" right in the middle of learning. That's the feeling I always want them to have.

Ultimately the final clue led to a 3 team mad dash to the last puzzle. One group literally had their hand on the clue more than once. Finally, one figured it out and successfully broke the final lock.

Notice the group in the back still frantically trying to break their locks as well...

This point did lead to some frustration among my more competitive non-winners but they got over it quickly enough. Maybe next time I won't just have one winning group. I don't know. I don't mind them recognizing that not everyone wins every time.

There were some other minor weaknesses that I'd fix on a next go. I think I'd change the lockbox clue. I made it purposefully vague but it just led to them randomly guessing years between 1776 and 1783 which is not what I wanted. 

Overall though, it was great and I am excited to start planning the next one (Jefferson's secret code cipher to Lewis and Clark? Civil War coded telegrams? Mayan numbers?) for my students. I do kind of wish I hadn't spend so much on the locks as the digital version seems much better. I'm glad I had some but probably don't need all 10 I bought. I especially am happy with the Dictionary Safe. That part was awesome. It did take awhile to figure out how to make the digital locks work but BreakoutEDU has some great tutorials on their site showing how to set it up. I also think I might try building one for the whole class to do together. I do worry about kids not participating and the more enthusiastic kids driving everything too much (which wasn't an issue here when they were in small teams) but I love the idea of them succeeding or failing together.

The main thing, which I think the team at BreakoutEDU is starting to come around on, is that the educational component is key. If I'm going to justify using time in my class for games I have be able to point to very specific learning goals. Providing clues through informational (and primary source!) texts is a great way to do that. You just may need to make them yourself.

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